In order to solve global environmental problems, a bottom-up approach focusing on down-to-earth efforts in each local community is generally considered effective. Since a local community itself is a complex system comprised of diverse stakeholders with conflicting interests, it is usually very difficult to develop future perspectives of the community in a scientific way. Environmental issues could affect the future of the local community. What is called for in this context is the adaptive management through consensus building among the various stakeholders. It is also notable that the environmental problems of each community have characteristics inherent to the locality. Thus, it is of the utmost importance to build a pragmatic knowledge base through scientific research based on local perspectives.
In many cases, however, solutions proposed by scientists are not adopted by local residents. Instead, these solutions often confuse decision making processes. Such lack of acceptance has thus far been attributed mainly to the lack of scientific literacy among local community stakeholders. The root cause, however, seems to be the fact that scientists tend to disregard local value systems and decision making processes, and the knowledge produced by them has little applicability in real local setups.